Module 4

The primary focus of this course module is to continue learning about different types of input and output signals used in embedded systems environment. Information in the real world domain, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, and light intensity, often come in analog signal form. Microcontrollers, such as the Arduino, provide mechanisms to accept analog input signals and process them in the digital domain. Students learn how to use Arduino features that allow input and output operation in the analog domain. Potentiometers and light sensors are used as examples to demonstrate analog input, while PWM signal is used to generate analog-like output signal.

The e-mindset challenges offer students opportunities to make connections between the basic concepts learned here with current real-world applications like microcontrollers, analog sensors and actuators used for making ‘smart’ gadgets used in autonomous vehicles to the the ‘smart’ home. The curious mind will not stop here, but goes far beyond by exploring and finding new application scenarios that have never been considered before.

Lab Resources


It is highly recommended students review the following tutorials before coming to class. This will facilitate the learning process in the classroom and makes for effective utilization of class time.